Picture: Debbie Wolfe
Whether or not they crop up in your garden, in a flower mattress, in gravel areas, or between cracks in paved pathways, weeds are the gardener’s age-old enemy. They make the yard and walkway look unkempt, they usually compete with fascinating vegetation for daylight, water, and vitamins. Some weed species may even unfold to the purpose of disrupting pure habitats. Weed killers can suppress the invaders and preserve them from overrunning the garden, backyard, and panorama.
However banishing weeds needn’t hurt the surroundings. Generations of chemical researchers have developed quite a few highly effective herbicides for residence use which are extremely efficient, comparatively low cost, and simple to use. When used sparingly and as directed, these merchandise will help remove the hardest weed issues whereas minimizing danger to adjoining fascinating vegetation. Sadly, frequent use and improper software of chemical herbicides results in water air pollution, acute and power well being issues, collateral harm to fascinating vegetation, and different adverse results.
Pure and natural weed killers make your best option for on a regular basis garden, backyard, and panorama upkeep as a result of the energetic components are far much less dangerous to human well being, waterways, and wildlife. We examined the next merchandise, they usually proved to be extremely efficient. Together with perception on weed killers, this information presents our high suggestions backed by our check outcomes of those merchandise and the explanation why we contemplate these among the finest weed-killer choices out there.
- BEST OVERALL: Inexperienced Gobbler 20% Vinegar Weed Killer
- BEST BANG FOR THE BUCK: Calyptus 45% Pure Concentrated Vinegar
- BEST FOR LAWN WEEDS: Sunday Weed Warrior Herbicide
- BEST FOR DANDELIONS: Sunday Dandelion Doom Herbicide
- BEST FOR GRAVEL AREAS: Bonide Captain Jack’s Deadweed Brew Focus
- BEST PRE-EMERGENT: Woodstream Concern Weed Prevention Plus
Picture: Debbie Wolfe
Earlier than You Purchase Weed Killer
Weed killer is a straightforward, one-step choice for eradicating wild, undesirable grasses, however a few of these merchandise could not present the outcomes required by sure customers. Some weed killers have the potential of killing all plant varieties, making them arduous to make use of in close-quarter gardens, vegetable gardens, or grassy areas.
Bob Vila all the time recommends the normal hands-on method, pulling pesky weeds by hand or utilizing a weeder to make sure that the one vegetation affected are those customers need gone. Later on this article, we provide a DIY different to store-bought weed killers.
How We Examined the Greatest Weed Killers
Retailers supply a broad choice of chemical, pure, and natural weed killers, however many herbicides are linked to such unintended penalties as toxicity to nontargeted vegetation and animals, water air pollution, and human well being dangers. We advocate avoiding purposes of most artificial chemical substances throughout routine upkeep—after researching 43 in style garden and backyard herbicides, we chosen and examined seven low-toxicity weed killers. We have been assured that they might show to be extremely efficient when used as directed and safer for normal use based mostly on their human and environmental impacts.
We timed the applying of weed killers to keep away from inclement climate and examined every on a minimal of 100 sq. toes, in response to the directions on the labels. All liquid merchandise have been utilized utilizing a backpack sprayer, or the applicator included with the product when supplied, with the spray nozzle adjusted to a rough sample to keep away from spray drift. We inspected software areas 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after spraying and famous the patterns of dieback. Then we waited 7 days and started inspecting each day for indicators of regrowth.
With every of the weed killers we examined, dieback occurred inside 3 days or much less of the preliminary remedy, with no indicators of regrowth for two weeks or extra. When regrowth of perennial or woody-stemmed weeds did happen, it was considerably diminished in comparison with the pretreatment look. Secondary purposes of the identical merchandise on regrowth in every space led to related dieback patterns together with even slower, much less vigorous regrowth.
Our High Picks
We examined a wide range of extremely efficient weed killers with low environmental toxicity which are secure for normal yard and backyard upkeep. Not all weed killers are the identical. For that purpose, our lineup consists of each pre- and post-emergent choices to cease annual pesky weeds from sprouting and to knock out powerful perennial grasses all through the panorama. Right here’s how our decisions carried out in our assessments, and why we expect they’re among the finest weed killers round.
Inexperienced Gobbler makes grab-and-go weed management straightforward with no mixing required. This quart-size trigger-spray bottle is able to use with 20 p.c vinegar and water answer. Simply twist the on/spray change and goal grassy and broadleaf weeds.
We examined Inexperienced Gobbler vinegar grass and weed killer on the edges of panorama beds the place creeping grasses had begun to encroach and amongst veggie vegetation inside raised backyard beds, and it labored inside hours. The Inexperienced Gobbler’s compact bundle and ready-to-spray bottle have been handy, however to keep away from harm from overspray, we needed to maintain the set off sprayer inside about 12 inches of focused weeds, which elevated stooping and bending in comparison with tank sprayers with lengthy spray wands. The fantastic mist of this weed and grass killer coated weed foliage nicely however with extra spray mist drift than our coarse spray wand emitted. We additionally needed to exit the realm at intervals as a result of overwhelming scent.
- Kind: Contact
- Method: Liquid, able to spray
- Lively ingredient: Vinegar
- No mixing required; weed and grass killer is prepared proper out of the field
- Useful trigger-spray bottle is straightforward to make use of; targets solely undesirable weeds
- Compact and light-weight; can be utilized for lengthy intervals with out inflicting fatigue
- Quick-acting components kill weeds inside hours of preliminary spray-on contact
- Frequent purposes on concrete could trigger etching, fading, or different marks
- High quality spray mist simply turns into airborne; could attain some fascinating vegetation
Get the Inexperienced Gobbler weed and grass killer at Amazon (2-pack), The Residence Depot, or Inexperienced Gobbler.
Banishing weeds needn’t negatively influence the surroundings or the pocketbook because of this Calyptus product. To make use of this cost-effective biodegradable product to defoliate and kill weeds shortly, dilute one a part of this pure, extremely concentrated vinegar with as much as eight components water and apply with a sprayer. The excessive acid content material erodes leaf cells and dries out foliage inside 2 to 24 hours. This weed killer is finest utilized in mulched beds and different planted areas however is just not superb for patios, sidewalks, or driveways. Repeated contact with concrete, pure stone, mortar, and another hardscape surfaces could trigger etching.
We have been extraordinarily cautious when diluting this concentrated Calyptus vinegar and advocate that every one customers observe go well with, working open air for higher air flow and carrying goggles and rubber gloves to guard in opposition to eye and pores and skin irritation. We additionally double-checked to make sure all the sprayer’s inside components have been made from plastic, since this acid may harm rubber and metallic. We adjusted the sprayer nozzle to a rough sample and utilized the weed killer on herbaceous weeds in backyard pathways and vacant backyard beds. All the smallest weeds died inside a number of hours. Established, undesirable Bermuda grass runners browned out in 5 to six hours, however the place the grass was the thickest, solely the outside parts turned brown.
This weed killer smelled so intensely of vinegar that we needed to stroll away from the realm throughout remedy a number of instances. The sturdy odor remained within the yard for about 24 hours. Calyptus killed extra weeds for much less cash than the opposite weed killers we examined.
- Kind: Contact
- Method: Liquid, focus
- Lively ingredient: Vinegar
- Clear components solely; comprises solely acetic acid (vinegar) and distilled water
- 45 p.c weed-killer focus makes as much as 9 gallons of weed killer
- Quick-acting formulation; weeds die inside a number of hours of software
- Can be utilized for family cleansing in addition to a weed killer
- Frequent purposes on concrete trigger etching, fading, and different marks
- Intense vinegar scent could change into overpowering; might not be appropriate close to porches or open home windows
- Might require extra private protecting tools whereas mixing and spraying
Get the Calyptus weed killer at Amazon.
This gallon-size Sunday Weed Warrior is premixed and comes with its personal battery-powered spray pump/wand. Its ammoniated cleaning soap formulation adheres nicely to leaf surfaces and begins killing weeds and grass on contact. As a nonselective weed killer, it’s meant for focused spot remedy solely—overspray will harm or kill garden grass. To make use of, give the jug an excellent shake, set up the sprayer adapter into the cap, and begin spraying.
We examined Sunday Weed Warrior on crabgrass, clover, plantain, and wild violet in a number of garden areas in addition to on crack weeds on the driveway and sidewalk. It labored quicker than vinegar-based merchandise, with noticeable dieback in lower than 2 hours and thorough brownout in about 18 hours. This weed killer for lawns additionally penetrated and killed Bermuda grass shoots extra completely than the vinegar merchandise: Close to complete dieback occurred after one software, whereas vinegar killed off solely the floor leaves and left inexperienced blades beneath.
The battery-operated sprayer was straightforward to make use of and labored nicely, extracting nearly each drop of liquid from the jug. Plus, a concentrated refill container is accessible to order instantly from the producer. Sunday Weed Warrior was a wonderful all-around weed killer for lawns, so long as customers take precautions to guard in opposition to overspray.
- Kind: Contact
- Method: Liquid, able to spray
- Lively ingredient: Ammoniated cleaning soap of fatty acids
- Noncorrosive soap-based formulation dehydrates vegetation like weeds, grass, and moss
- Handy, built-in sprayer makes software of this weed killer straightforward
- Quick-acting formulation kills weeds, grasses, and different undesired vegetation on contact
- Dependable ingredient record; simpler on grassy weeds than vinegar
- Nonselective formulation could kill fascinating vegetation in gardens and flower beds in addition to weeds
Get the Sunday Weed Warrior weed killer at Lowe’s, Goal (32-ounce spot remedy), or Sunday (32-ounce spot remedy, 2-pack).
Selective herbicides which are secure for lawns and derived from pure components are uncommon, however Sunday Dandelion Doom matches the invoice. The energetic ingredient, iron HEDTA, is dangerous information for broadleaf weeds however secure to make use of on grass. This 1-gallon bundle is able to spray and comes with its personal battery-powered sprayer attachment. Shake nicely, plug within the spray adapter, and spot spray dandelions, clover, thistle, and different weeds with out damaging the garden.
We examined Dandelion Doom in an out-of-the-way garden space that was reasonably infested with clover, dandelion, wild violet, crabgrass, and some different weeds. After marking a small check plot, we sprayed the weeds individually, with out being particularly cautious about overspray. After 24 hours, we observed discoloration of the dandelion, clover, and violets. After the third day, many of the broadleaf weeds appeared lifeless.
Not like different weed killers that trigger weeds to dry out and switch brown, this product made the leaves flip black. The garden grass and crabgrass appeared unaffected. Due to our curiosity about iron staining, we additionally sprayed a number of weeds in cracks on the concrete driveway. The weeds died there in about 2 days, however the concrete didn’t stain. Sunday Dandelion Doom is a superb option to preserve broadleaf weeds out of garden areas.
- Kind: Contact
- Method: Liquid, able to spray
- Lively ingredient: Iron HEDTA
- Selectively (and conveniently) kills broadleaf weeds inside a number of hours
- Protected to be used on garden grass with out inflicting patches or brownness
- Handy, built-in sprayer head attachment makes software of this dandelion killer straightforward
- Runoff is not going to hurt adjoining plant roots; secure to make use of round fascinating vegetation
- Not a fast-acting formulation; could take a number of days to see outcomes
- Must be utilized 3 hours earlier than rainfall; could not go well with properties in very moist areas
- Effectiveness is determined by climate and weed maturity; could not go well with some customers’ preferences
Get the Sunday Dandelion Doom weed killer at Lowe’s, Goal (32-ounce spot remedy), or Sunday (32-ounce spot remedy, 2-pack).
The energetic ingredient capric acid, a saturated fats that comes from coconut and palm kernel oils, kills broadleaf and grassy weeds by drying out the foliage. It makes Captain Jack’s Deadweed Brew an efficient desiccant for gravel areas liable to weeds. The focus is available in a quart-size bundle with a devoted measuring cup. Combine it with water to make as much as 8 gallons of spray-on contact weed killer.
We examined Deadweed Brew on a secondary gravel driveway that was primarily two graveled tire tracks with a ridge of inexperienced weeds down the center. Due to the tall, dense weed cowl, we ready the positioning by first mowing it down with a string trimmer and eradicating the clippings. Then we waited 3 days for some foliage regrowth to happen earlier than broadcasting the spray over all the weed zone with a backpack sprayer, having set the nozzle on a rough spray sample.
Inside 4 hours after the midmorning spray software, the weed zone had turned a pale greenish brown. By the following morning, all of the weeds have been utterly brown. We appreciated that this focus was odor-free, even at full power. Captain Jack’s focus kills a number of weeds over massive areas with out noxious odors.
- Kind: Contact
- Method: Liquid, focus
- Lively ingredient: Capric acid and caprylic acid
- Protected weed killer; plant-derived energetic components are appropriate for properties with kids and pets
- Gives fast-acting management of weeds, grass, mosses, and algae inside hours
- Focus makes as much as 32 gallons of weed killer; appropriate for big lawns and gardens
- Light sufficient for use with sprayers; noncorrosive to metallic sprayer components
- Requires mixing with water earlier than use; might not be superb for some customers’ preferences
Get the Bonide weed killer at Amazon, The Residence Depot, Lowe’s, or Bonide.
The energetic ingredient on this Concern product from Woodstream—corn gluten meal—is a pure byproduct of the corn moist milling course of. As a substitute of killing current weeds, it prevents them from rising within the first place. Unfold the granules on lawns, gardens, or panorama beds twice a yr to dam annual weeds like crabgrass, chickweed, henbit, annual bluegrass, and lots of others. As an added bonus, corn gluten meal is a major supply of nitrogen that enhances garden and backyard development.
Testing a pre-emergent product in the course of summer time is lower than superb as a result of summer time weeds are already current. With the intention to give it a go, we bodily eliminated all vegetation, roots and all, from certainly one of our dormant however infested backyard beds. We averted weed killer sprays as a way to shield the latent seeds remaining within the soil. As soon as the mattress gave the impression to be nothing however clear soil, we utilized the granules, watered them in, then let the soil dry out for a number of days per the label directions. By means of 4 weeks of statement, we famous germination of solely 27 crabgrass vegetation and some different seedlings within the 150-square-foot space.
Though we’re not assured within the scientific worth of our little check, it appears to agree with actual analysis carried out by Iowa State College scientists. Nevertheless, we advocate patrons use Woodstream’s Concern weed preventer in late winter or early fall as directed for his or her space on the label directions. Additionally, we recommend utilizing it instantly after buy and never storing the product for an prolonged interval, because the scent will entice rodents and different pests. Constant use of this pre-emergent will remove many of the want for different weed killers.
- Kind: Residual
- Method: Granules
- Lively ingredient: Corn gluten meal
- Simple to use; merely unfold over the specified space by pouring or utilizing a spreader
- Residual motion formulation can forestall weeds’ seeds from sprouting anew; appropriate for flower beds
- Contains nitrogen to feed the garden whereas it kills weeds
- Doesn’t kill current weeds, solely acts as a weed preventer
- Might entice bugs or rodents after software; fencing or pesticides could also be required
Get the Woodstream Concern weed killer at Amazon or The Residence Depot.
Or, DIY Your Personal Weed Killer
Shopping for the very best pure weed killer in the marketplace is a dependable choice for killing weeds. However, for these of us preferring the DIY method, there’s an at-home treatment that kills weeds and could be made with the fundamental necessities present in most kitchens.
Bob Vila’s favourite recipe includes mixing the next components in a big bowl:
- 1 gallon of white family vinegar
- 1 cup of salt
- 1 tablespoon of dish cleaning soap
After these components are mixed, the combination ought to be poured into a sprig bottle or sprayer after which utilized to the undesirable vegetation. For finest outcomes, this combination ought to be utilized on a sunny day so the warmth dries out and shrivels the weeds. The mixture of the weed killer and the solar will assault the basis programs of the weeds and velocity up the killing course of.
This combination will create a full gallon of pure weed killer that may be utilized to massive or small patches of weeds. The remnants could be labeled and saved within the storage or with different cleansing provides. It ought to be refrained from kids and pets between weed management purposes.
There are different widespread weed killer choices that use harsh chemical substances like Spectracide Weed & Grass Killer Focus, Southern Ag Amine 2,4-D Weed Killer, and Ortho Nutsedge Killer for Lawns. Since these choices embody some harsh components that may hurt fascinating vegetation, people, and home pets, we selected to advocate merchandise for garden weed management that include pure vinegar, corn gluten meal, capric acid and caprylic acid, and iron HEDTA, making them secure for properties with kids and pets operating round.
What to Contemplate When Selecting the Greatest Weed Killer
Weed killers should not interchangeable. Some herbicides kill on contact, whereas others work systemically. Some selectively kill particular varieties of weeds, and others kill a broad spectrum of vegetation. Make sure to contemplate the varieties of weeds that have to be managed, the place they’re rising, their development stage, and the climate situations.
Even a well-reviewed weed killer will ship poor outcomes whether it is utilized incorrectly or if the product is just not designed to resolve a particular weed drawback. For example, a vegetation killer designed to remove and stop driveway weeds would devastate a garden, whereas a garden weed killer could be ineffective in opposition to among the powerful weeds that develop in concrete cracks. To maximise product efficiency and reduce the chance of herbicide failure, consider weed-killer kind, weeds it ought to assault, and different properties when choosing the proper business weed killer.
Selecting the best weed killer for the job is essential. Listed here are among the commonest varieties of herbicides.
- Contact weed killers work by destroying the a part of the plant to which they’re utilized, normally inside hours to days. They’re generally used on annual weeds, comparable to crabgrass, nettle, and chickweed, that are simpler to kill than perennial vegetation and customarily die when their foliage or stems are destroyed.
- Systemic weed killers are absorbed into weeds and flow into inside the plant’s inside after software, normally all the way down to the roots. This destroys all the plant from the underside up, however it will possibly take a number of days to a number of weeks to see outcomes. Not like contact weed killers, systemic merchandise typically don’t state the precise time frame it takes to kill weeds. They’re an excellent choice for perennial weeds comparable to dandelion, poison ivy, or ragweed, that are usually tougher to kill due to their deeper roots.
- Residual weed killers, additionally also known as pre-emergent herbicides, present prolonged weed management. They forestall weeds from germinating and rising for a interval of between 3 and 12 months. Whereas residual weed killers present an efficient barrier in opposition to new weed development, in addition they forestall germination of any new seeds from favorable vegetation.
- Selective weed killers are supposed to destroy weeds however not turfgrass or different helpful vegetation within the neighborhood, making them the very best weed killer for lawns. Any such weed killer is an effective choice for eradicating, for instance, dandelions or thistles on the garden or in a flower mattress.
- Nonselective weed killers eradicate weeds together with another vegetation within the software space. Use these weed and grass killer choices alongside the fence or pool, or in driveway or sidewalk cracks, the place helpful vegetation aren’t in danger.
Pure weed killers use components like vinegar, which burns weed foliage with its acidic pH, and herbicidal soaps that dry out the weeds. Pure weed killers make a wonderful choice for conditions the place a unhazardous formulation is essential, comparable to in a vegetable backyard, kids’s playground, or canine park. The components in pure and natural herbicides are biodegradable, so that they pose the least risk to people and animals and don’t pollute waterways.
Pure herbicides are nonselective and handiest in opposition to younger, tender weed seedlings, however they might kill another vegetation in shut proximity. Listed here are another components that could be included in natural weed killers.
- Sodium chloride weed killers work by attacking the weeds’ inner water steadiness and dehydrating them naturally from the basis system up, successfully shriveling and killing them.
- Cleaning soap dehydrates and poisons weeds however is handiest when combined with vinegar or salt.
- Iron HEDTA is registered with the Environmental Safety Company as an efficient weed killer in opposition to dandelions, white clover, daisies, buttercups, chickweed, and moss, particularly. It causes oxidation which finally kills the weeds.
- Fatty acids are contact herbicides that management, suppress, or kill weeds completely. However, they might not be as efficient if used alone.
- Capric acid and caprylic acid weed killers work finest on small perennial vegetation and weeds. They perform in tandem as a contact, post-emergent, nonselective weed killer that may kill grass, weeds, and vegetation in vegetable gardens.
Weed killers usually are available both a liquid spray or granular formulation.
- Liquid weed spray: These formulation are available bottles with spray nozzles which are prepared to make use of in addition to concentrates that should be combined earlier than use. Some weed killers use spray bottles that connect to a typical backyard hose for treating massive areas, like total lawns. Liquid weed killers are very efficient as a result of they’re sprayed instantly on the offending weed and might cling to even the smallest leaves.
- Granular: Granular weed management is normally distributed with a spreader, which makes it simpler to use over a big space, comparable to a complete garden. Granules will also be combined with dry fertilizer, a combo that kills weeds because it nourishes. This skill to distribute herbicide and fertilizer over massive areas makes granular varieties superb weed management for lawns.
Emergence refers back to the stage of weed development at which weed killer is utilized. Customers have the choice of both pre-emergent weed killers or post-emergent weed killers relying upon choice:
- Pre-emergent weed killers, generally labeled as “weed preventers,” goal and kill the germinating (sprouting) seedlings of weeds earlier than they emerge from the soil and change into seen. This makes them the very best herbicide to look after established lawns and flower beds. Though it’s secure to make use of round established vegetation, customers shouldn’t apply pre-emergent the place they are going to be planting “good” seeds for fascinating vegetation. Pre-emergent herbicides are typically utilized earlier than indicators of weeds are seen. They are going to kind a chemical barrier within the high layer of soil to cease the expansion of seedlings underground for focused weed killing.
- Submit-emergent weed killers, also called herbicides, are used to regulate current weeds which have already emerged from the soil. Apply them to the leaves and stems of seen weeds in backyard beds or in driveway and sidewalk cracks. They kill weeds by both destroying the foliage or stems, or touring all the way down to the roots and killing all the root system.
There are three varieties of weeds: annual, perennial, and biennial. Annual weeds stay for a single season after which die with the arrival of winter, spreading their seeds to take root and develop the following yr. Pre-emergent weed killers, which cease the seeds from germinating, are sometimes the very best answer for any such weed.
Perennial weeds have root programs that retailer vitamins throughout chilly seasons, which they use to develop within the spring. Biennial weeds have a 2-year rising season; the primary yr they develop and the second yr they produce seeds earlier than dying. Each perennial and biennial weeds are simpler to kill within the late summer time or fall, simply earlier than they go into their dormant stage. Liquid weed-killer sprays are the best choice for perennial and biennial weeds.
Some weed killers degrade in soil inside a number of days to weeks. Whereas they require extra frequent reapplication to maintain weeds at bay, they permit customers to replant the realm sooner with out risking harm to new vegetation. This makes them a greater choice to be used in flower or vegetable gardens which are quickly to be planted in addition to in locations the place weed preventers are much less efficient, like gaps between paver stones within the yard.
Longer-lasting weed killers keep within the soil and preserve new weeds from rising within the software space for months or perhaps a yr after software. They’re an excellent choice for lawns or gardens requiring lasting weed management, however they will additionally inhibit the germination of recent vegetation within the space. Customers ought to keep away from making use of these weed killers to areas the place they plan so as to add new crops within the close to future.
When you’re questioning if weed killer is secure to make use of round pets and other people or what kind is finest for killing weeds in driveway cracks, learn on for solutions to those and different generally requested questions on these herbicides.
Q. What’s the very best weed killer for driveways?
Although it is determined by the kind of weeds, the very best weed killer for driveways will remove current vegetation and stop new development from increasing driveway cracks. For this, use of each a pre-emergent and post-emergent weed killer could be useful.
Q. Are weed killers poisonous to individuals and animals?
Sure, some weed killers could be poisonous to individuals and animals. Current research, nevertheless, present that even poisonous weed killers could be secure round individuals and pets if the instructions are adopted carefully and the product is used sparingly.
Q. Are pure weed killers efficient?
Pure weed killers are efficient at killing younger, tender weeds outright. Since perennial weeds have established root programs, they’ll possible develop again after being defoliated with a pure weed killer. A number of follow-up remedies on regrowth could also be essential to kill the hardest weeds.
Q. What kills weeds completely?
One of the best guess for completely killing weeds is pulling them out of the bottom from the basis.
Q. Can I take advantage of vinegar as a weed killer?
Sure, vinegar can be utilized as a weed killer. Some business weed killers use concentrated vinegar as a pure different to artificial chemical substances.
Why Belief Bob Vila
Bob Vila has been America’s Handyman since 1979. Because the host of beloved and groundbreaking TV collection together with “This Previous Home” and “Bob Vila’s Residence Once more,” he popularized and have become synonymous with “do-it-yourself” residence enchancment.
Over the course of his decades-long profession, Bob Vila has helped thousands and thousands of individuals construct, renovate, restore, and stay higher every day—a convention that continues at present with professional but accessible residence recommendation. The Bob Vila staff distills need-to-know data into challenge tutorials, upkeep guides, software 101s, and extra. These residence and backyard specialists then completely analysis, vet, and advocate merchandise that assist owners, renters, DIYers, and professionals of their to-do lists.